Positron Generation at KEK Injector Linac

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Overview


Overview schematics of the present positron generator

The KEK injector linac delivers a 4 GeV positron beam into the SuperKEKB asymmetric-energy collider. It consists of a tungsten target, a flux-concentrator (FC), a bridge coil, large aperture S-band structures (LASs), 15-m long solenoids, a positron-electron separation chicane, and a 50-m long hundred-quad section. It is designed to provide a positron bunch of 4 nC with 10-nC primary electron. Beside the target by 3.5 mm is a hole to pass the electron beam, which is arranged at the center of the LAS behind not to blow-up the emittance.

For the KEKB project until 2008 the target was retracted during electron acceleration. In 2006 for a year a target of tungsten crystal was utilized to enhance positron yield by 25%. For the TRISTAN project from 1986 to 1993 a separate 80-m positron linac was utilized.

Please send your comments and questions to K.Furukawa or Y.Enomoto.


Presentations and Articles

A New Flux Concentrator Made of Cu Alloy for the SuperKEKB Positron Source [pdf],   [doi],   [poster-slide]
Y. Enomoto, K. Abe, N. Okada, T. Takatomi, Proc. of IPAC2021, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, May 2021, pp.2954-2956, WEPAB144.

First Synchronous Measurement of Single-Bunched Electron and Positron Beams with a Wideband Feedthrough-BPM at the Positron Capture Section of the SuperKEKB Injector Linac [pdf],   [doi],   [poster]
M.A. Rehman, T. Suwada, F. Miyahara, Proc. of IPAC2021, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, May 2021, pp.557-560, MOPAB163.

Commissioning of Positron Damping Ring and Beam Transport for SuperKEKB [pdf],   [doi]
N. Iida, Y. Funakoshi, H. Ikeda, T. Ishibashi, H. Kaji, T. Kamitani, M. Kikuchi, T. Kobayashi, H. Koiso, F. Miyahara, T. Mori, Y. Ohnishi, Y. Seimiya, H. Sugimoto, H. Sugimura, R. Ueki, Y. Yano, D. Zhou, Proc. of eeFACT2018, Kowloon, Hong Kong, September 2018, pp.152-156, TUPAB07.

Design, Manufacture and Operation of the Beam Spoiler for Positron Target Protection [pdf]
L. Zang, T. Kamitani, Proc. of IPAC2014, Dresden, Germany, June 2014, pp.573-575, MOPRI002.

Positron Yield Optimization by Adjusting the Components Offset and Orientation [pdf]
L. Zang, M. Akemoto, S. Fukuda, K. Furukawa, T. Higo, N. Iida, K. Kakihara, T. Kamitani, T. Miura, F. Miyahara, Y. Ogawa, H. Someya, T. Takatomi, K. Yokoyama, S. Ushimoto, Proc. of IPAC2014, Dresden, Germany, June 2014, pp.576-578, MOPRI003.

SuperKEKB Positron Source Construction Status [pdf]
T. Kamitani, M. Akemoto, D. Arakawa, Y. Arakida, A. Enomoto, S. Fukuda, Y. Funakoshi, K. Furukawa, T. Higo, H. Honma, N. Iida, M. Ikeda, E. Kadokura, H. Kaji, K. Kakihara, H. Katagiri, M. Kikuchi, H. Koiso, M. Kurashina, S. Matsumoto, T. Matsumoto, H. Matsushita, S. Michizono, K. Mikawa, T. Mimashi, T. Miura, F. Miyahara, T. Mori, A. Morita, H. Nakajima, K. Nakao, T. Natsui, Y. Ogawa, Y. Ohnishi, S. Ohsawa, M. Satoh, T. Shidara, A. Shirakawa, M. Suetake, H. Sugimoto, T. Suwada, T. Takatomi, T. Takenaka, M. Tanaka, M. Tawada, Y. Yano, K. Yokoyama, M. Yoshida, L. Zang, X. Zhou, D. Satoh, Proc. of IPAC2014, Dresden, Germany, June 2014, pp.579-581, MOPRI004.

Large-aperture Travelling-wave Accelerator Structure for Positron Capture of SuperKEKB Injector Linac [pdf]
S. Matsumoto, T. Higo, K. Kakihara, T. Kamitani, M. Tanaka, Proc. of IPAC2014, Dresden, Germany, June 2014, pp.3872-3874, THPRI047.

Design Study of a New Large Aperture Flux Concentrator [pdf]
L. Zang, M. Akemoto, K. Furukawa, S. Fukuda, T. Higo, T. Kamitani, K. Kakihara, Y. Ogawa, H. Someya, T. Takatomi, Proc. of IPAC2013, Shanghai, China, May 2013, pp.318-320, MOPFI018.

SuperKEKB Positron Source Target Protection Scheme [pdf]
L. Zang, T. Kamitani, Proc. of IPAC2013, Shanghai, China, May 2013, pp.315-317, MOPFI017.

Positron Injector Linac Upgrade for SuperKEKB [pdf],   [slide]
T. Kamitani, M. Akemoto, Y. Arakida, D. Arakawa, A. Enomoto, S. Fukuda, K. Furukawa, Y. Higashi, T. Higo, H. Honma, N. Iida, M. Ikeda, E. Kadokura, K. Kakihara, H. Katagiri, M. Kurashina, H. Matsushita, S. Matsumoto, T. Matsumoto, S. Michizono, K. Mikawa, T. Miura, F. Miyahara, T. Mori, H. Nakajima, K. Nakao, T. Natsui, S. Ohsawa, Y. Ogawa, M. Satoh, T. Shidara, A. Shirakawa, T. Suwada, H. Sugimoto, T. Takatomi, T. Takenaka, Y. Yano, K. Yokoyama, M. Yoshida, L. Zang, X. Zhou, D. Satoh, Proc. of LINAC2012, Tel-Aviv, Israel, September 2012, pp.177-179, MOPB002.

Design Optimization of Flux Concentrator for SuperKEKB [pdf]
L. Zang, T. Kamitani, S. Fukuda, Y. Ogawa, Proc. of IPAC2012, New Orleans, USA, May 2012, pp.1473-1475, TUPPD032.

Development of L-Band Positron Capture Accelerating Structure with Kanthal-coated Collinear Load for Super KEKB [pdf]
F. Miyahara, Y. Arakida, T. Higo, N. Iida, K. Kakihara, T. Kamitani, S. Matsumoto, Proc. of IPAC2012, New Orleans, USA, May 2012, pp.1933-1935, TUPPR051.

Beam Dynamics in Positron Injector Systems for Next Generation B Factories [jacow],   [jacow-slide]
N. Iida, H. Ikeda, T. Kamitani, M. Kikuchi, K. Oide, D.M. Zhou, Proc. of IPAC2011, San Sebastian, Spain, September 2011, pp.2857-2860, THYA01.

Development of L-Band Positron Capture Accelerator System in KEKB Injector Linac [pdf]
S. Matsumoto, M. Akemoto, T. Higo, H. Honma, M. Ikeda, K. Kakihara, T. Kamitani, H. Nakajima, K. Nakao, Y. Ogawa, S. Ohsawa, Y. Yano, K. Yokoyama, M. Yoshida, Proc. of LINAC2010, Tsukuba, Japan, September 2010, pp.73-75, MOP012.

Design of Positron Damping Ring for Super-KEKB [jacow],   [poster]
M. Kikuchi, T. Abe, K. Egawa, H. Fukuma, K. Furukawa, N. Iida, H. Ikeda, T. Kamitani, K. Kanazawa, K. Ohmi, K. Oide, K. Shibata, M. Tawada, M. Tobiyama, D.M. Zhou, Proc. of IPAC2010, Kyoto, Japan, May 2010, pp.1641-1643, TUPEB054.

Design of the Positron Transport System for SuperKEKB [jacow]
N. Iida, T. Kamitani, M. Kikuchi, Y. Ogawa, K. Oide, Proc. of IPAC2010, Kyoto, Japan, May 2010, pp.4284-4286, TUPEB054.

Operational Performance of Positron Production from Trungsten Single-crystal Target at the KEKB Injector [pdf],   [poster]
T. Suwada, K. Furukawa, Proc. of PAC2009, Vancouver, Canada, May 2009, pp.518-520, MO6RFP066.

Enhancement of the Positron Intensity by a Tungsten Single Crystal Target at the KEKB Injector Linac [pdf]
T. Suwada, M. Satoh, T. Sugimura, T. Kamitani, K. Furukawa, K. Umemori, H. Okuno, T. Haruna, R. Hamatsu, T. Sumiyoshi, K. Yoshida, A.P. Potylitsin, I.S. Tropin, R. Chehab, Proc. of PAC2007, Albuquerque, USA, June 2007, pp.2778-2780, THPMN030.

Positron-Production Experiment in Tungsten Crystal using 4 and 8-GeV Channeling Electrons at the KEKB Injector Linac [pdf]
T. Suwada, S. Anami, R. Chehab, A. Enomoto, K. Furukawa, K. Kakihara, T. Kamitani, Y. Ogawa, S. Ohsawa, H. Okuno, T. Oogoe, Proc. of EPAC2002, Paris, France, June 2002, pp.509-511.

Two-Bunch Operation of the KEKB Linac for Doubling the Positron Injection Rate to the KEKB Ring [pdf]
Y. Ogawa, A. Enomoto, Y. Funakoshi, K. Furukawa, T. Honda, N. Iida, N. Kamikubota, T.Kamitani, E. Kikutani, M. Kikuchi, H. Kobayashi, H. Koiso, T. Matsumoto, Y. Ohnishi, S. Ohsawa, K. Oide, T. Suwada, Proc. of APAC2001, Beijing, China, September 2001, pp.112-114.

Increase of Positrons by a High-Intensity Two-Bunch Acceleration Scheme at the KEKB Linac [pdf]
S. Ohsawa, A. Emonoto, K. Furukawa, N. Iida, M. Ikeda, N. Kamikubota, T. Kamitani, E. Kikutani, H. Kobayashi, H. Koiso, T. Matsumoto, Y. Ogawa, Y. Ohnishi, K. Oide, T. Suwada, Proc. of PAC2001, Chicago, U.S, June 2001, pp.3284-3286.

High-Intensity, Two-Bunch Acceleration for Doubling Positron Production at the KEKB Linac [pdf]
Y. Ogawa, A. Enomoto, K. Furukawa, H. Kobayashi, T. Matsumoto, S. Ohsawa T. Suwada, Proc. of HEACC2001, Tsukuba, Japan, March 2001.

Positron-Production Experiment by 8-GeV Channeling Electrons in Crystal Tungsten at the KEKB Injector Linac [pdf]
T. Suwada, S. Anami, A. Enomoto, K. Furukawa, K. Kakihara, T. Kamitani, Y.Ogawa, S. Ohsawa, T. Oogoe, H. Okuno, T. Fujita, K. Umemori, K. Yoshida, R. Hamatsu, K. Sasahara, V.Ababiy, A. P. Potylitsin, I. E. Vnukov, Proc. of HEACC2001, Tsukuba, Japan, March 2001.


Japanese Articles

A new flux concentrator made of Cu alloy for the SuperKEKB positron source [pdf]   [slide]
Y. Enomoto, Proc of PASJ2021, Takasaki, Japan, Aug.2021, pp.-, THOB04.

Surveying of DC Solenoids for Positron Beam and Installation of BPMs and Steering Coils for SuperKEKB Injector Linac [pdf]   [poster]
K. Kakihara, Proc of PASJ2021, Takasaki, Japan, Aug.2021, pp.-, THP031.

Surveying of DC Solenoids for Positron Beam and Installation of BPMs and Steering Coils for SuperKEKB Injector Linac [pdf]   [poster]
N. Iida, M. Kikuchi, Y. Seimiya, T. Mori, T. Kamitani, K. Kakihara, T. Oogoe, Y. Arakida, M. Tawada, Proc of PASJ2020, Matsuyama, Japan, Sep.2020, pp.871-874, FRPP69.

Beam timing stability diagnostics of primary electrons for positron production at the KEKB Injector Linac [pdf]   [poster]
T. Suwada, Proc of PASJ2019, Kyoto, Japan, Jul-Aug.2019, pp.526-530, WEPI032.

Radiation Shield for the Positron Target of KEKB Injector LINAC [pdf]   [poster]
S. Matsumoto, H. Iwase, K. Kakihara, T. Kamitani, T. Sanami, T. Higo, H. Yamaoka, Proc of PASJ2016, Chiba, Japan, Aug.2016, pp.1288-1290, TUP133.

Present status of SuperKEKB positron source [pdf]
T. Kamitani,M. Akemoto,D. Arakawa,Y. Arakida, N. Iida,M. Ikeda,H. Iwase,A. Enomoto,Y. Enomoto,S. Ohsawa,Y. Ohnishi,N. Okada,Y. Ogawa,K. Kakihara,S. Kazama,H. Kaji,H. Katagiri,E. Kadokura,M. Kikuchi,Q. Feng,M. Kurashina,H. Koiso,M. Satoh,L. Zang,T. Shidara,X. Zhou,A. Shirakawa,M. Suetake,H. Sugimoto,T. Suwada,T. Takatomi,T. Takenaka,M. Tanaka,M. Tawada,R. Zhang,K. Nakao,H. Nakajima,T. Natsui,T. Higo,S. Fukuda,Y. Funakoshi,K. Furukawa,H. Honma,H. Matsushita,S. Matsumoto,T. Matsumoto,T. Miura,K. Mikawa,S. Michizono,T. Mimashi,F. Miyahara,T. Mori,A. Morita,Y. Yano,K. Yokoyama,M. Yoshida,D. Satoh, Proc of PASJ2016, Tsuruga, Japan, Aug.2015, pp.1064-1068, THP044.


Links

Interim SuperKEKB design report, Injector Linac chapter 11.9, Positron Source [pdf], 2018.

Two-bunch Acceleration at KEKB Linac

Pulsed Magnets for Simultaneous Injections

Positron generation enhancement by channeling effect

Conference Papers from KEK Linac, LCG and KCG

Reports and Journal Papers from KEK Linac


A birdview of the positron generation complex core


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Kazuro Furukawa <kazuro.furukawa AT kek.jp>, Sep.26.2021.
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